INBREEDING

 

Reproduction of dogs is not the same as breeding. For the first the male and female is required, minimum knowledge regarding the dog and place in the flat. The second means the purposeful work with the breed, i.e. manufacturing breeding

The traditional approach to the dog's breeding which is followed by us does not contain any proper system or program. Any work is build based on the principle "from the simple - to the complex". There is not more obvious truth, that the quality of posterity depends on the quality of the relatives and hereditary factors. Therefore, not every dog may produce the good posterity, which assume the necessity of the careful selection and screening of dogs.

When selecting the pedigree male dog the most valuable are considered prepotent producers. Prepotent - is the ability of the animal to pass strongly to it's posterity the features inherent to the breed, even in case of coupling with non similar animals. As usual, a good male dog possess strongly shown sexual type, which appears not only in it exterior qualities. It should be active, aggressive within the limits for this breed. Many very good-looking, but listless and spineless male dogs appear useless producers. It was noted from the ancient times that "strong" male dog should have strong, deep voice, without week, possess the noticeable aspiration to dominate among the animals… The aspiration to dominate is directly linked to the activity of it's endocrine system, and, therefore, has the direct relation to the functioning of the sexual sphere.
 

... An experience shows that, while selecting the producers, you should follow the following rule: never to couple the dogs with the deficiencies of the same features even of the opposite kind…

The exact projection of the heritable features is only possible only when the mechanics of their inheritance and interrelation is definitely known, as well as there are full genetic cards of the parent forms. The mechanism of inheritance of the most of the features by the dogs are only studied at the hypothesis level, and is unreal to create under the existing science conditions the genetic cards for every dog.

There are two methods, two strategic programs for the breeding of the animals: inbreeding (relative coupling) and out breeding (cross) - coupling of the individuals unrelated to each other. Both methods are applied in the dog breeding and supplement each other.
...

There are different forms of it:
1. Close inbreeding - crossing of animals, standing in the direct relationship (brother-sister, father-daughter, mother-son 1-2; 2-2 in the genealogical table)
2. Close related inbreeding - crossing of animals standing in the close relationship (cousin brothers and sisters, uncle and niece, grandfather and granddaughter etc.; 1-3; 2-3; 3-2 in the genealogical table)
3. Moderate inbreeding - crossing of animals, having same ancestry in the 3-4 generation of the genealogical table.
4. Remote inbreeding - mutual ancestry of the crossing animals are above the forth generation in the genealogical table (4-5;5-5;4-4)....
Inbreeding, where the posterity family tree contains of two or more mutual ancestry is called complex breeding.

All the inbreeding forms with diverse speed and intension serve the transmission and concentration of the same genes from one generation to another. At the end this process leads to the genetic monotony - [гомозиготности] of the offspring produced. It does not mean that all the offspring will be homogeneous, but opposite, there will appear some puppies with the accumulated recessive genes, i.e. such features which were not inherent to their parents.

...The aspiration to bring out the producers, which would be transmitting their advanced qualities to the offspring, is, obviously, inherent to each breeder.

It's not possible to bring out similar dogs without resorting to inbreeding, since each crossing leads to the genetic variations of the offspring and the uncertainty of the inherited features increase in geometric speed. From the other side, when the breeder makes inbreeding it main working method, it gets after the certain time passes the bunch of deficiencies, defects and deformities among the offspring of the looking normal producers…

You will not get deformity or defect by inbreeding if the relevant genes are not inherent to the producers. The dogs, which contain hidden defects in their genotype, will spread them over and over under the process of out breeding, and you will not be able to escape their appearance: they "jump out" under an appropriate combination of genes despite of the method of breeding. Inbreeding, as opposite, allows to pick up and concentrate deficiencies and defects among the part of offspring, to discover them and cut of the useful features via the strong and straight-out screening. This is the only way to produce the dog of extra class, and although the need of screening some puppies will seem cruel to somebody, it's still worth of doing right away and meaningly, than to turn the search of defects and "harmful" genes into the blind's man buff extended for years and generations...

As a results of inbreeding are stability of type, accumulation of valuable features, producing of animals - ideal representatives of the breed and producers with heredity of the highly projected probability.

However the inbreeding can not realize any new qualities in the offspring, therefore this form of breeding is only effective until the external circumstances require the animals with other qualities or until the features of extinction of the line appear. In this circumstances crossing is applied…

What forms of inbreeding would be preferred and how to plan the breeding in the farm? Unfortunately, nobody can give concrete directions regarding breeding, which should be followed in order to achieve the required result. Therefore the tactics of dog breeding requires intuitive, creative and original approach in any case…

...In the development of inbreeding line the three stages can be distinguished:

1. The initial stage, growth of homozygosity, when in each of the generation the percentage of splitting of genotype is increasing. This appears in the diversification of the offspring. The screening is complex due to the deviation of quality of the offspring does not have exact polarity, which would allow to displace valuable features to one side and undesirable features - to another side.

2. The critical stage, the period of the greatest accumulation of undesirable homozygosity. According to genetic Robinson, the critical periods for the average statistical line is 4 - 6 generation. The appearance of the numerous undesirable features in the as earliest generation of inbreeded animals as possible should be viewed as success. Since this saves time of the breeder and allows to analyse the prospects of the following jobs within the limited time frame… In the hard cases it's temptation to apply crossing, which should be avoided if possible. It is better to carry the work to it's end, and come up to the last stage after "cleaning" the line from undesirable genes.

3. The receipt of the stable clean line. The screening on this stage is miminal, since the overwhelming majority of undesirable genotypes was already withdrawn from the genetic fund of the line… Just clean lines represent the most valuables for the selectionist.

....The high-level dog breeding is inconceivable without the clean lines, which appear at the third stage of inbreeding.

Crossing, in it turn, is not less necessary method, since the inbreeding itself produces only constant offspring, which is not able to the further development. Therefore, as was noted, both methods of breeding are interrelated and selection via solely crossing or inbreeding is not possible…
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Per materials of Vestnik RKF № 7. Tsygelnitky E.G

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